Numerous studies have shown that the mutational analysis of the genes BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS and of the re-arrangements RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, PAX8/PPARg can become an effective diagnostic tool used to classify nodules with an undefined cytology.
The presence of gene mutations or re-arrangements are a strong indication of malignancy and lead to the surgical removal of the thyroid.