Casadei Gardini A, Capelli L, Ulivi P, Giannini M, Freier E, Tamberi S, et al. (2014) KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA Status in Squamous Cell Anal Carcinoma (SCAC). PLoS ONE 9(3): e92071.

Andrea Casadei Gardini1, Laura Capelli1, Paola Ulivi1, Massimo Giannini2, Eva Freier3, Stefano Tamberi3, Emanuela Scarpi1, Alassandro Passardi1, Wainer Zoli1, Angela Ragazzini1, Dino Amadori1, Giovanni Luca Frassineti1

1Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy
2Radiotherapy Unit, Macerata Hospital, Macerata, Italy
3Oncology Unit, Degli Infermi Hospital, Faenza, Italy


Anti-EGFR therapy appears to be a potential treatment option for squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCAC). KRAS mutation is a rare event in SCAC, indicating the absence of the principal mechanism of resistance to this type of therapy. However, no information is available from the literature regarding the status of BRAF or PIK3CA in this cancer type. We analysed KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA status in SCAC patients in relation to the clinical-pathological characteristics of patients and to the presence of the human papilloma virus (HPV). One hundred and three patients were treated with the Nigro scheme for anal cancer from March 2001 to August 2012. Fifty patients were considered for the study as there was insufficient paraffin-embedded tumour tissue to perform molecular analysis the remaining 53. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded sections. KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA gene status and HPV genotype were evaluated by pyrosequencing. KRAS and BRAF genes were wild-type in all cases. Conversely, PIK3CA gene was found to be mutated in 11 (22%) cases. In particular, 8 mutations occurred in exon 9 and 3 in exon 20 of the PIK3CA gene. These findings suggest that SCAC could potentially respond to an anti-EGFR drug. PIK3CA mutation may be involved in the process of carcinogenesis in some cases of SCAC.

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